Чарап Дж. - Объяснение Вселенной. Новая эра физики


Объяснение Вселенной. Новая эра физики- Год: 2007

Автор: Чарап Дж.

Переводчик: Г. Селиверстова

Жанр: Космология, физика, теория струн

Издательство: Техносфера

ISBN: 978-5-94836-112-3

Язык: Русский

Формат: PDF

Качество: Отсканированные страницы

Количество страниц: 202-Описание: Джон Чарап предлагает обзор физического мира, каким мы его видим в начале XXI столетия. Благодаря открытиям в области физики мы живем в мире большей опасности и большего комфорта, меньших физических частиц и большего количества идей. Чарап представляет эти идеи, но избавляет нас от связанных с ними математических выкладок. После исчерпывающего обзора трансформации физической науки в XX столетии он обращается к последним открытиям в области физики частиц, астрофизики, теории хаоса и космологии. Подводя читателей к самому краю спекулятивных идей, он объясняет, каким образом теория суперструн может в конечном итоге объединить квантовую механику с общей теорией относительности, чтобы создать универсальную квантовую теорию тяготения.

Прочитав эту книгу, человек, далекий от физики, познакомится с общим принципом неопределенности Гейзенберга, а физики могут узнать что-то новое. Студенты получат доступ к спорным физическим концепциям, а поэты усвоят новую лексику, чтобы затем описать множество чудес во Вселенной. Проделав с нами мысленный путь от ультрафиолетовой катастрофы, опрокинувшей ньютоновский мир, до Всеобщей теории завтрашнего дня, Чарап приблизил самые захватывающие современные научные знания к Земле, и мы все можем узнать об этих новых открытиях-

Об авторе

Джон М. Чарап / John M. Charap

Известный английский физик, специалист по теории струн, профессор физики в Колледже Королевы Марии Лондонского университета.

Читает студентам курс «Объяснение Вселенной», основанный на его книге с тем же названием.

Страница Джона Чарапа на сайте Колледжа Королевы Марии


Здесь фотографии и основные биографические данные (на англ.яз)



Explaining the Universe. John M. Charap, Universities Press (India). 2004. 226 pp.

In this fascinating and engaging book, John Charap takes us through a grand tour of the physics of the Universe and its evolution

in the preceding century. He wonderfully develops from the classical Newtonian world to the Einsteinian and quantum

world in a manner that the basic thread of argument and motivation is comfortably accessible to the intended, interested wider

audience. I would say without hesitation that he has succeeded pretty well in this. The author weaves the motivational arguments quite convincingly and insightfully in developing from the classical Newtonian framework to the modern relativistic and quantum framework. It is a marvellous treat, which I am sure every reader will find entertaining and enjoyable. Apart from the masterly discussion of intricate and complex issues of theories of relativity, quantum theory, chaos and string theory, there is a good discussion on critical astronomical observations and the big-bang origin of the Universe.

I should, however, say that everyone has his own way of developing the edifice. To me, the most compelling argument that takes one from Newton to Einstein is

the inclusion of light (zero mass particle) in the framework. Since it moves with a constant universal speed, which is untenable in Newtonian mechanics, we need a

new mechanics of special relativity. Further, its interaction with gravity would require that gravity must bend space. Thus gravitation could truthfully be described

only by the curvature of space–time. Now the dynamics of gravity has to be fully determined by the space–time curvature and the remarkable feature of this line of

approach is that the so-called cosmological constant appears as naturally in the equation as the matter stress energy tensor. It is truly a new constant of space–time which needs to be fixed by experiment. It is interesting that the author not only builds up the story of the working of the Universe in an exciting and educative manner, he does not shy away from making bold predictions for the developments to come by. He pronounces that by 2020 all the big puzzles of high energy physics, including for instance, Higgs particles, WIMPs, string theory, etc. would have been resolved. This is certainly a big claim, which is perhaps indicative of the mood of our times, where it takes little to be bold, and bold outrageously. Gone are the days of Lorentz and Poincare, who were robbed of their due credit for discovering special relativity, simply because they were not bold enough to pronounce that velocity of light is constant. Curiously, what seems much more on the cards – the detection of gravitational waves by man-made detectors – escapes his spree of predictions. He does, however, keep the healthy opening

for surprises, and nothing could be a surer prediction than that there would be surprises.

It is really an interesting and remarkably well-written book which should be read by the lay audience as well as the experts alike with equal interest. I would strongly recommend it to one and all.

NARESH DADHICH, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics




"An engaging read. . . . This is more than a simple history of physics--it is the story of our changing view of the universe."--Ignacio Birriel, Astronomy

"A well-informed, accessible and appropriately non-mathematical guide to the great theories of modern physics, quantum theory and relativity."--Graham Farmelo, New Scientist

"Among the slew of popular treatments of modern physics, Charap's effort distinguishes itself by accenting the provisional character of scientific theory. . . . Science students will find the author's palpable curiosity enticing."--Booklist

"The scope of this book is certainly ambitious. Charap attempts to cover all the crucial developments of modern physics in the 20th century. He . . . gives the whole endeavor a robustness that reflects his joy and pride at taking part in such an intellectual exercise. . . . Explaining the Universe is . . . peppered with wonderful historical anecdotes about the (mainly) men who made these discoveries. These stories help to make the book a good read."--Pedro Ferreira, Physics World

"Charap cuts a wide swath through the physical universe, from the physics of the very large to the physics of the very small. . . . The book is very readable and has excellent photographs and illustrations. It introduces the reader to a broad range of topics from the physical universe on the cutting edge of research."--Choice

"Charap's canvas is the whole of physics at the start of the 21st century, including the structure of the universe, the bizarre objects it contains--from black holes to superclusters of galaxies--and the deep level at which it contains order. . . . Charap has an eye on the future as well as on current knowledge. He shows there is a direct link between apparently obscure science and everyday life."--Martin Ince, Times Higher Education Supplement

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